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Vol. XI (2):^. Opisthobranch Newsletter February 1979. 

Thanks to Tom Rice for the following list of opisthobranch stamps: 
Afars & Issas (now called Republic of Djibouti) : #465 , Glossodoris sp. 

(1977) , 70 fr. 
Haiti: #669, Micromelo undata (1973) 5<:; #671, Cyerce cristaliina (1973) 25<: 
Lundy: Caloria maculata (1978) lOp. 

Mauririus: Hexabranchus marginatus (1969) #349, 40<: 
New Caledonia: #309, Glaucus marinus (1959) 10fr.;#C37, Calliphylla 

orientalis (1969) 37fr.;#C112, Hydatina phjjsis (1974) 32fr. 
Paupua New Guinea: 4 1978 issues showing Roboastra arika, Chromodoris 

fidelis f Flavellina macassar ana and Chromodoris trimarginata in 

values of 10, 15, 35 and 40t respectively. 
Singapore: #267, Amplustrum amplustre C1977) 20C. 

Eveline Marcus writes that she is expecting the Rehders from the 
Smithsonian to visit in Brazil and later, other visitors. Her summer 
trip for this year will again leave out California. 

Speaking of trips: We live about 30 minutes from the San Francisco 
International Airport and would love to hear from any of you who are 
travelling through. Please let us know even if it is only a short stop 
between planes. I won't be able to do any foreign travelling for quite 
a while so please don't miss the opportunity to say hello if you get to 
California. 

I still have microfiche available for many, many opisthobranch and 
general molluscan works. Most of the fiche are 24x reduction and contain 
98 pages when full. Most are also negative appearing and have a black 
background with clear characters for optimum viewing and printing. Paper 
copies of any paper I have are available for $.35 per page as I have to 
pay that much to have them done commercially. I hope to lower this cost 
but that will have to wait until the volume of requests justifies the 
purchase of a good reader/printer. I will also have to spend about 
$2,000.00 more to get the text editing set-up computerized. Quite a few 
original papers and books are available. If you desire prices on any 
of these items you need only to send a request with the ON citation num- 
bers. 

Dr. Ruth Rosin has moved. Her new address is: 126 W. 83rd. Street, 
New York, NY 10024. 

Chris Kitting is now Dr. Christopher Kitting since he has received 
his Ph.D. from Hopkins (Stanford) . Chris is working as a research assoc- 
iate until March and will then probably go to U.C. Santa Barbara as a 
research associate. Congratulations Dr. Kitting! 

The 1979 meeting of the Western Society of Malacologists will be 
held in conjunction with the American Malacological Union and the Coastal 
Bend Shell Club, from August 5-11 at Corpus Christi, Texas. The call for 
papers should go out around April 1, 1979. If you are planning to attend 
and present a paper, please let me know. I would like to see a coordinated 
group of opisthobranch papers if possible. 

James T. Carlton has moved. His new address is: Department of Biol- 
ogy, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 
02543. 

The Bay Area Malacologists meeting, held January 27, 1979, was well 
worth attending. Approximately 40 people attended and discussed a variety 
of subjects. Dr. James Nybakken talked about two opisthobranch publica- 
tions which should be out this year. One will be published by R. Tucker 
Abbott and one by the California Academy of Sciences. If any of the 
often-heralded "Color California Opisthobranchs" books is actually pub- 
lished and distributed, it will be cause for shoutingi 

Ian Loch and Bill Rudman are still at the Australian Museum. Bill 
is spending time getting to know the local fauna. 






OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER 
March. 1979. 
Volume XL Number 3. 
Page 5. 

Illustration at right: 
Micromelo guamens is 
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) 
Illustration by 
P.J. Hoff. 








From Kerry B. Clark: "In clarification of an earlier note {ON XI (2): 
3-4] on tank culture, we discovered that we actually had two species of 
Oxynoe living in our culture systems, o. antillarum has type 1 development 
and large egg masses, while the second species has very extended intracap- 
sular development and small inconspicuous egg masses. Kathe Jensen is 
preparing a description of the new species. This explains why Oxynoe 
appeared to be developing in our tanks, as the new species can be cultured 
very easily (as long as we can supply Caulerpa) , 

We are continuing our identification of diets of Florida Ascoglossa, 
which should help clarify feeding trends within the order, and also help 
workers locate specimens. Almost invariably, if the food can be located, 
the animal can be collected the holding the alga in aquariums for several 
days, after which the juveniles grow to visible size. The adults can also 
be collected by snorkeling, grabbing handfuls of algae and shaking vigor- 
ously underwater. These techniques are necessary to collect sufficient 
numbers for lab work, because tropical populations have very low densities 
relative to those of temperate climates. Nearly every siphonalean alga 
in Florida supports one or more species of ascoglossan, though often sea- 
sonally. We have collected nearly all reported species of Florida Asco- 
glossa in this way, with some apparently new species and several interest- 
ing range extensions, including Costasiella lilianae , Mourgona germaineae , 
and Caliphylla mediterranea. Many species appear to be quite havitat- 
specific, and we have collected these from only a few localities in Florida 
despite relatively widespread occurrence of the algal food. Perhaps some 
of these anomalies are due to currents, but we often find that a distance 
of a hundred meters may make a tremendous difference in density of a popu- 
lation, even though conditions appear quite similar. 

I have three papers in press - one in Baruch symposium volume, and 
two in the December JOURNAL OF MOLLUSCAN STUDIES. Two are on plastid sym- 
biosis and one on developmental patterns." 

From James T. Carlton: "Greetings!, and congratulations on seeing 
the Opi sthobr anch Newsletter through its first ten years! I still remem- 
ber the day when the first issue (and covering sheet) arrived on our desks 
at the California Academy of Sciences. Of all the other newsletters — 
for barnacles, amphipods , polychaetes, echinoderms, Corbicula , and many 
others — the ON is surely one of the, if not the, oldest and most con- 
tinuous of them all. 

Let me comment on my old friend Dave Behrens ' comments on the mat- 
ter of nomenclatural changes . There are of course two general types of 
such changes: 'legal' changes necessitated by ICZN rules (matters of pri- 
ority, homonomy, etc.), and somewhat more 'subjective' changes, based on 
the op 'ions of one worker or another as to the generic placement of a 
species, as to the synonymy of two or more species, etc. It is the latter 
that most often give the most trouble: Worker A thinks species X and Y are 
the same , but Worker B thinks species X and Y are not only quite distinct 
but should perhaps be in different genera, leaving Worker C not knowing 
which name or names to use. Only time and further data can resolve such 



VoLbXI(3)^5, Opisthobranch NIewsletter Inarch 1979 

CARLTON - CONTINUED FROM PRECEEDIS^G PAGES 

problems y and it may be one year or 50 years before one opinion or another 
is finally accepted. David comments that *A confusing point is that no 
one seems to be using the new names. ' Let us examine this problem. First, 
of course, the new names are used by those who propose them (presumably). 
We can then consider the rest of the workers in the field concerned, 
whether these are opisthobranch workers, barnacle workers, polychaete 
sorts, etc. Some of these will quickly adopt the new names, others will 
hedge a while, while others will disagree with the new names (unless, again 
presumably, the changes were dictated by ICZN rules) . Now we can consider 
the greater number of biologists, zoologists, natural historians, and many 
others who are outside of the particular field. It is here, more than any 
where else, that we find frustration, perplexity, confusion, disbelief, 
and many other responses to changes of names of common, well known species, 
and a naturally conservative response to continue use of the 'older' 
C= improper ?) name. Who, indeed, will willingly abandon Hermissenda (now 
Phidiana)? How do we explain that dear old Navanax has run the gamut from 
Chelidonura to Aglaja?, and that some of our Aglajas now are Melanoclamys? 
For those who know the classic worm Mercierell& t we are now to call it 
Ficopmatus ; Balanus tintinabulum calif oinicus Jts now Megabalanus calif orn- 
icus f and Balanus cariosus is now Semibalanus cariosus j the seaspider (pyc- 
nogonid) so common in some Calif ornian shallow waters, long known as Halo- 
soma viridintestinale f is now Anoplodactylus viridintestinalis . And, to 
return to gastropods, Littorina planaxis Must now be Littorina keenae; 
Mitrella carinata is now Alia carinata , and on the name changes go. And 
so are we to jump in and use all of the new names the moment we learn of 
them? Which are changes due to matters of priority, homonomy, or synonymy f 
which are changes because a subgenus has been elevated to a genus; which 
are changes because an old generic name must be abandoned for any of many 
reasons? To the general zoologist, it is all the same: the name has changed, 
the taxonomists have been at work, and the longer one can hold onto the 
older name, the better. (It is of interest to note that negative reactions 
to name changes are most pronounced when common and well-known species are 
involved, and are increasingly less pronounced when increasingly obscure 
species are concerned). In general, however, I believe we can say that 
new names are adopted albeit in many cases slowly, and that the proposal 
of a new name carries with it no time-adoption criteria or requirements. 
David remarks, 'Good old names are falling like dead flies,' but we must 
remember that exactly the same thing could have been said by a biologist ! 
in 1879, and that our 'good old names' were, in very many cases, the same I 
'new names' that biologists of generations ago may have objected to alsol j 

I must say that I am not sure that an 'opinion poll' is what we 
really need, as opinion polls or committee decisions certainly cannot tell 
us which names are 'correct,' and we do want to avoid the 'toothpaste tally' 
syndrome: 4 out of 5 (doctors, dentists, opisthobranch workers) prefer.... 
Certainly a section of the ON devoted to pointing out name changes would 
be useful, and solid discussions on individual problems would be welcome, 
but to actually know that 6 workers prefer one name, and 4 another, might 
rjot tell us too much, especially as the expertise and experience of these 
workers will vary greatly. 

I could go on for some length, as I have given some considerable 
thought over the years to the subjectivity and ephemerality of names, and 
what it all mus mean. I'll be interested in reading other responses to 
Dave's comments." - Jim Carleton 

Bibliography of Opisthobranchia: 

8428 NYST, H. 1855, Description succincte d'un novueau mollusque marin 

des rives de I'Escaut {Alderia scaldinia n. sp. ) . BULL. ACAD. 
BELG., 22: 

8429 NYST, H, & M. MOURLON, 1871. Note sur le gite fossilifere d'Aeltre 

(Flandre orientale) . ANN. SOC. MALACOL. BELG. (MEM.), 6: 



MARCH 1979 Opisthobranch Newsletter Vol.XI(3):7. 

8430 OBERWIMMER, A., 1898. Heteropoden und Pteropoden, Sinusigera, gesamni" 

elt von S.M. Schiff "Pola" 1890/94. Soolog. Ergebn. , X. Mollusken II. 
DENKSCHR. K. AKAD.,WISS. WIEN, MATH. NAT. CL., 65? 

8431 OBERZELLER, EDDA, November 1969. Die Verwandtschaftbeziehungen der 

Rhodope veranii K(I511. zu den Oncidiidae, Vaginulidae und Rathouisi- 
idae in bezug auf des Nervensystem. MALACOLOGIA, 9 (1) s282-283 , figs. 

8432 Ptisanula limnaeoides , a New Arctic Opisthobranchiate Mollusc, its 

Anatomy and Affinities. ARK. ZOOL., 8 (25): 1-18, 1 pi. NILS ODHNER. 

8433 O'DONOGHUE, CHARLES H. 1930. Two New Tectibranchs from India. PROC. 

MALACOL. SOC. LONDON, 19(3):83"90. 
16^3 GSHIMA, H. 1933. Young Pycnogonids Found Parasitic on Nudibranchs . 
ANNOT. ZOOL. JAPON, 14:61-66, FIGS. 1-5. 

8435 OLDROYD, IDA S., 1911. Collecting Shells from the Abalone. NAUTILUS, 

25: 

8436 OLDROYD, I.S., 1914. A Remarkably Rich Pocket of Fossil Drift from 

the Pleistocene. THE NAUTILUS, 28: 

8437 OLDROYD, I.S., 1919. New Pleistogene Mollusks from California. THE 

NAUTILUS, 34: 

8438 OLDROYD, IDA SHEPARD, 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of 

North America. STANFORD UNIV. PUBLIC. UNIV. SER. GEOL. SCI., 2(1-3): 
942pp. , 108 pis. 

8439 OLIVEIRA, L.P.H. DE., 1950. Levantamento biogeograf ico da baia de 

Guanabara. MEM. INST. OSW. CRUZ, Vol. 48:363-391. Rio de Janeiro, 

8440 OLIVEIRA, L. DE & L. KRAU, 1953. Levantamento biogeograf ico da Baia 

de Guanabara. MEM. INST. OSW.^CRUZ, 51:503-524, figs. 1-30. 

8441 OLLIVIER, MARIE-THERESE, 1970. Etude des peuplements de zost'^res, 

lanice et sabelles de la region Dinardaise. TETHYS, 1(4):1097- 
1138, 9 figs. 

8442 OLMSTED, J.M.D., 1917. Notes on the Locomotion of Certain Bermudian 

Mollusks. JOURN. EXP. ZOOL., 24: 

8443 OOSTINGH, C.H., 1923. Recent Shells from Java. I. Gastropoda. MED- 

EDEEL. LANDBOUWHOOGE-SCHOOL WAGENINGEN, 26: 

8444 OPPENHEIM, P., 1904. Uber Tertiarfossilien wahrscheinlich eozSnen 

Alters von Kamerun. BEITRAGE ZUR GEOLOGIE VON KAMERUN., Stuttgart. 

8445 0RSTED, A., 1845. Fortegnelse over Dyr samlede ved Dr^bak Juli 1844. 

NATURHIST. TIDSKR. , (Ny Raekke) , 1: 

8446 0RSTED, A. S., 1849. Om lovene for f arvefordelingen hos dyrene i 

havets forskellige dybder. VIDENSK. MEDDEL. NATURH. FOREN. KJ0BENH. , 

8447 ORTON, J.H., 1922. Sea Temperature, Breeding and Distribution in 

Marine Animals. JOURN. MARINE BIOL. ASSOC. PLYMOUTH, 12: 

8448 OSBORN, H.L. , 1887. Notes on Mollusca Observed at Beaufort, N.C. dur- 

ing Summer of 1882 and 1884. STUD. BIOL. LABOR. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV., 
.4: 

8449 OSTROUMOV, A., 1893. Distribution verticale des mollusques dans la 

mer noire. CONOR. INTERN. ZOOL. MOSCOU, 2: 

8450 OTTO, A.W. , 1821. Conspectus animalium quorundam maritimorum. VRATIS- 

LAVIAE, 

8451 OWEN, G. , 5 March 1955. Use of Propylene Phenoxetol as a Relaxing 

Agent. NATURE, 175:434. 

8452 0YEN, P. A., 1909. Skjaelbanken ved Kaddeland. FORHANDLG. VID. SELSK. 

CHRISTIANIA F. 1909, 

8453 PACE, S., 1901. On the Rediscovery of Euselenops (=Neda) luniceps Cuv. 

PROC. MALACOL. SOC. LONDON, 4: 

8454 PACKARD, E.L., 1916. Faunal Studies in the Cretaceous of the Santa 

Ana Mountains of Southern California. UNIV. CALIFORNIA PUBL. GEOL., 9: 

8455 PACKARD, E.L. , 1918. Molluscan Fauna From San Francisco Bay. UNIVER. 

CALIFORNIA PUBL. ZOOL., 14 (2) : 199-452 , pis. 14-60, tbls. 1-7.112 Sep.] 

8456 PAETEL, Fr., 1869. Molluscorum systema et catalogus. System und Auf- 

zahlung sSmmtlicher Conchylien der Sammlung von Fr. Paetel , nach dessen 
manuscript herausgegeben ifon Dr. L. W. Schaufuss. Dresden, 



VoL.XI3);8. Op:sTnOBRA^CH I^ews^htter inarch 1979 



8457 PAETELy Fr«^ 1873o Catalog der Conchylien-Sammlung. Nebst tJbersicht 

des angewandten Systems « 2. Aufl, Berlin, 

8458 PAETEL, Fr., 1888. Catalog der Conchylien-Sammlung. 4. Neubearbeitung. 

Mit Hinzuftlgung der bis jetzt publicierten recenten Arten, sowie der 
ermittelten Synonyma. 1. Abt. Die Cephalopoden , Pteropoden und Meeres- 
Gastropoden. Berlin, 

8459 PAGENSTECHER, H.A. , 1863. Untersuchungen fiber niedere Seethiere aus 

Cette. II, Zur Anatomie von Acteon viridis, Zeitschr, Wiss. Zool., 
12s 

8460 PAGENSTECHER, H.A. , 1876. Zoologische Miscellen I. Zur Kenntnis von 

Lophocercus Sieboldii Krohn und Soul., Oxynoe olivacea Raf.? Icarus 
Gravesii Forb? VERH. NATURHIST, MED. VER. HEIDELBERG, (N.F.), 1: 

8461 PAINE, ROBERT T., 1963. Trophic Relationships of Eight Sympatric 

Predatory Gastropods. ECOLOGY, 44:63-73. 

8462 PAINE, ROBERT T. , 1964, Ash and Calorie Determination of Sponge and 

Opisthobranch Tissue. ECOLOGY, 45:384-387. 

8463 PAINE, ROBERT T. , 1965. Natural History, Limiting Factors, and Ener- 

getics of the Opisthobranch Navanax inermis. 46 (5) : 603-619 , 9 text 
f igs« 

8464 PALADINO, R. , 1908. Uber das spektroskopische und chemische Verhalten 

des Pigmentsekretes von Aplysia punctata. BEITR. CHEM. PHYSIOL. 
PATH., 11: 

8465 PALLARY, P., 1900. Coquilles marines du littoral du d^partement d'- 

Oran. JOURN. CONCHYL. PARIS, 48: 

8466 PALLARY, P., 1902. Liste des Mollusques testaces de la bale de Tanger. 

JOURN. CONCHYL., 50: 

8467 PALLARY, P., 1904. Addition a la faune malacologique du Golfe de 

Gab^s. JOURN. CONCHYL., 52: 

8468 PALLARY, P., 1906. Addition h. la faune malacologique du Golfe de 

Gabis. JOURN. CONCHYL., 54: 

8469 PALLARY, P., 1911. Notes sur quelques coutumes carthaginoises et sur 

la survivance du Symbole de Tanit. REV. TUNISIENNE, 

8470 PALLARY, P., 1914. Liste des Mollusques du Golfe de Tunis. BULL. SOC. 

HIST. NAT. AFRIQUE DU NORD, 6: 

8471 PALLAS, P.S., 1774. Spicilegia zoologica, Fasc, 10: Berlin. 

8472 PALM^N, J.A. , 1881. Tvenne Opisthobranchiater frSn Finska. Viken. 

MEDDEL. SOC. FAUNA FLORA FENN. , 7: 

8473 PANCERI, PAOLO, 1868. Ricerche sugli organi que nei Gastropodi 

segragano I'acido solforico. REND. ACCAD. SCI. FIS. MAT. NAPOLI, 
7: [reprint pages numbered 1-8] 

8474 PANCERI, P., 1868. Nouvelles observations sur la salive des Mollusque 

gasteropodes. ANN. SCI. NAT., ZOOL., (5), 10: 

8475 PANCERI, P., 1869. Gli organi e la secrezione dell'acido solforico 

nei gasteropodi; con un'appendice relativa ad altre glandole dei 
medesimi. ATTI ACCAD. SCI. FIS. MAT. NAPOLI, 4: 

8476 PANCERI, P., 1872. Etudes sur la phosphorescence des animaux marins. 

ANN. SCI. NAT., ZOOL., (5), 16: 

8477 PANCERI, P., 1873. On the Light Emanating from the Nerve Cells of 

Phyllirrhoe bucephala. QUART. JOURN. MICR. SCI., N.S., 13: 
84 78 PANETH, JOSEF, 1885. BeitrSge zur Histiologie der Pteropoden und 
Heteropoden. ARCH. F. MIKROSKOP. ANAT. , 24:230-288, pis. 

8479 PANTANELLI, D., 1880. Conchiglie plioceniche di Pietrafitta in pro- 

vincia di Siena. BULL. SOC. MALAC. ITAL., 6: 

8480 PANTANELLI, D. , 1881. Enumerazione dei molluschi pliocenici della 

Toscana viventi nei Mediterranea. BULL. SOC. MALACOL. ITAL., 7: 

8481 PANTANELLI, D. , 1884. Note di malacologia pliocenica. I. Aggiunte e 

correzioni al catalogo dei molluschi pliocenica dei Dintorni di 
Siena pubblicato da de Stefanie Pantanelli. BULL. SOC. MALAC. 
ITAL., 10: 



y 






0PISTH0B:1ANCI! NEWSLETTER 
Volume XL Numbers ^^5^6 
April-June, 1979 

Paae 9. 



Illustvation at right: 

Caltiopoea bellula 

Orbigny, 1337 Drawing by J. A. Ortea 




I am forced to increase subscription rates to the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWS- 
LETTER. The postal rat<^s are due to rise again in the near future. 
Effective immediately, all foreign subscription rates will increase by 
five dollars per calendar year. U.S. and Canadian rates will remain 
the sam.e. U.S. individual subscriptions will be $10.00 per year, U.S. 
institutional rates will be $12.50 per year. Foreign individual sub- 
scriptions will be $15.00 per year and foreign institutional subscrip- 
tions will be $17.50 per year. Back volmes will increase to $7.50 per 
volume. Microfiche will be $2.50 per volume and are available through 
the 19 7 7 volume. Subscriptions and back volume requests should be 
made payable to Steven J. Long, 79 2 Laurie Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 
9 50 50, and be paid in U.S. funds. 



Articles: 



ON THE IDEAL TECHNIQUE FOR CLASSIFYING OPISTHOBRAI^CHIA. 
Eveline du Bois-Reymond Marcus. 



Systematics is the basis for other work with animals: ecology, 
physiology, pharmacology must know the species they are dealing with. 
Empty shells are often not sufficiently characteristic to determine 
even the family they belong to. Specimens of any kind, if they do not 
fit into a previous description, should be treated as new and given a 
working name, so that later research can confirm their status or place 
them in a synonym.y. 

Collecting in the littoral zone ; Turn stones: the photophobic 
slugs hide at daytime. Replace stones carefully to original position. 
Algae are observed, covered with water, in a flat dish, or in a bucket 
covered vith a black cloth; many animals come the surface. In algae 
kept in the aquarium for some weeks, their inhabitants often grow rap- 
idly. Sand and mud are sieved with a kitchen sieve with 1-1.5 mra 
meshes. The living animals are picked out, and also dead shells for 
observing the variation. Interstitial fauna creeps out of the sand 
heaped up on one side of an inclined dish filled with water to the 
lower border of the sand. One can also put anaesthetic into the water 
and whirl the animals out. The fauna of panels hung into the sea for 
some weeks or more, often includes opisthobranchs. Plank totonic spe- 
cies are collected with the plankton net . Diving and dredging are for 
species from deeper water. Note the substratum and food (Aloae, hy- 
droids , etc . ) 

Make a thorough description of the specimens not immediately rec- 
ognize<-l and a color photograph or drawing with colored pencils from 
the back and from the right side, with tentacles, rhinophores, gills, 
cerate. , qenital, and anal openings. The veins running to the heart 
are 3peci fie in some species of Elysia.